pilka nozna futbolowa

Main rules of the game:

The game is played on a rectangular grassy field. A football pitch is between 45 and 90 m wide and between 90 and 120 m long. A match consists of two 45-minute halves with a 15-minute break. In championship matches extra time (made up of two 15-minute periods) may be added followed by a penalty shootout.
There are 11 players in each team. In official matches three of them can be replaced by one of seven substitute players. A substituted player cannot take further part in the game. To move the ball around, players can use their feet, heads and other parts of the body except for hands. This rule does not apply to the goalkeeper when he is within the penalty area after the ball has been kicked by an opposition player.

A foul is penalized by a free kick or a penalty kick (taken at a distance of 11 m from the goal) if the offence has been committed within the penalty area of the defending team. The referee can penalize a player with a yellow card or a red card. The latter results in a player's dismissal from the field of play. When a free kick is taken, the opposite team may form a wall at the minimum distance of 9.15 m from the ball. A direct free kick can be taken directly at the goal, whilst an indirect free kick, for instance after an offside offence when a player who passes the ball is behind the defensive line, cannot be taken directly at the goal. There is no offside offence in the case of a throw-in, a corner kick and when the player becomes actively involved in the play on his team's half of the field. A throw-in is taken with both hands from behind a player's head after the ball has crossed the touchline. A corner kick is taken from a corner of the field when the defending team kicks the ball so that it leaves the field by crossing the goal line on their half of the pitch. If the attacking team kicks the ball out of the field, the game is restarted from the goal line (5 m away from the end line).


The goal is 7.32 m wide and 2.44 m high. The circumference of the ball should be between 68 and 70 cm. The ball should weigh between 410 and 450 g. The pressure inside the ball should be 0.6-1.1 atmospheres (600-1000 g/cm²). The ball is made of leather or a synthetic material. Inside the ball there is an air-filled bladder made of rubber.

Players wear clothes (jerseys, shorts, stockings) that cannot pose danger to the health of other players. Wearing shoes with metal studs on the soles, watches, jewellery, etc. is not allowed. Taking off the jersey is not permitted during matches. Players must wear shin guards under their stockings.